What does ?? operator means in Swift

⋅ 1 min read ⋅ Swift

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What does ?? operator means in Swift

?? is a nil-coalescing operator. It is a binary operator[1] (a ?? b) that returns the result of its left-most operand if it is not nil and returns the right-most operand otherwise.

The nil-coalescing operator (a ?? b) is shorthand for the code below:

a != nil ? a! : b

If a is not nil, returns a, otherwise return b. The expression a is always of an optional type. The expression b must match the type that’s stored inside a.

Here is a long version for better understanding.

func nilCoalescing(a: String?, b: String) -> String {
if a != nil {
return a!
} else {
return b

What is the purpose of nil-coalescing operator

Nil-coalescing operator use for defines a default value where a more specific value is an optional type.

In the following example, we let users set a specific string value for a cell's title, but we set it to default if they decided not to do that.

// 1
func configureCell(title: String?) {
// 2
titleLabel.text = title ?? "Default title"

1 A specific value of type optional string (String?).
2 If a passing title is nil, we use the default value Default title.


Nil-coalescing isn't exclusive to Swift. It is a common way to define a default value for langauges[2] that has a concept of null. So if you have a code that requires a default value, don't hesitate to use nil-coalescing. It might look weird at first, but it conveys a clearer message of what you are trying to do than an if-else statement.

  1. Binary operators operate on two targets (such as 2 + 3) and are infix because they appear in between their two targets. ↩︎

  2. You can search for this operator in other languages using a term like "nil-coalescing" or "null-coalescing". ↩︎

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